GMS® distinguishes two ways of connection fixation in the brain and, consequently, two memory types: the electric and the reflex.
Electric memory helps us to understand connection fixation. This memory type is called electric because there is no tangible carrier of this connection in your brain. A connection is stored in the brain in the form of a coordinated electric activity of a group of nerve cells.
Temporary Characteristics of Electric Memory
Time of connection fixation varies from 0.8 seconds per connection (the officially registered speed memorization record) to 6 seconds per connection (standard for those who completed a GMS® training course). In theory, the minimal time for creating a connection in electric memory cannot be under the human reaction time (about 0.14 seconds).
Connection storage time without repeated activation (memorization at one take) is about 40-60 minutes.
Connection storage time with repeated fixation over a period of 3-4 days is approximately 1.5 months. Repeated fixation is performed by repeated activation (remembering information).
If created and fixed connections are activated at least once every 6 weeks, one can store these connections for a lifetime.
Characteristics of electric memory are obtained in a variety of ways: empirically, via experience (experimentally), proven by neurophysiological/ psychiatric data, etc.
Before we analyze the connection fixation mechanism, you will need to become acquainted with the following concepts: holography, spatial frequencies, nerve cells direction selectivity, reverse connection (feedback), types of cell activity, and a few others.
Holography is a process of breaking down complex oscillation processes into an array of simple components via subsequent recording of these components.
We often encounter the phenomenon of decomposing a complexity into several parts in our everyday life. You can decompose piano chords into notes. Every compound number can be decomposed into a set of prime numbers (number that can only be divided by one and the original number itself). Complex oscillatory movement of an autumn leaf can be broken down into an array of simple sinusoids.
That works both ways. You can also obtain the compound number you might need from a set of prime numbers or a piano chord from a set of notes.
5 ? 7 ? 11 ? 13 ? 17 = 85085 85085 = 5 ? 7 ? 11 ? 13 ? 17
Imagine that there are two rafts moving on a water’s surface. Both rafts are moving vertically, but with different unstable frequencies. The rafts cause circles to appear on the water. Circular waves will intersect and create a pattern on the surface. If the rafts’ movement frequencies are unstable, the junction zone of these waves, where they intersect, will be changing constantly. Hence, we will not be able to distinguish any particular pattern.
However, if we make the movement frequencies stable, constant, a standing wave will appear in the junction zone - a stable pattern that results from the wave’s composition. Stationary waves appear when a wave source has stable (coherent) frequency.
To make a hologram, it is necessary to have a source of coherent radiation with stable frequency, specifically, a laser.
Imagine that you have a laser on your left side and its rays are directed to your right. In the middle of a table there is a photographic plate and the laser’s rays pierce it. To your right, on the table, there is a simple key that you want to make a hologram of. Having pierced the photographic plate, the laser ray falls onto the key, is reflected, and falls back on the photographic plate. The result of a temporary delay of the light being reflected back from the key causes a slight lag.
Light waves that come from the laser are mixed with the light waves reflected back from the key. A standing wave will appear on the light-sensitive plate – an infrared image that is fixed by the plate.
After we expose the plate and whiten it, we receive a hologram – an exact light copy of the key. Now, if we illuminate the hologram with a laser ray of the same frequency or expose it to the sunlight, we will clearly see a key on it. In truth, though, there is no actual image of the key on the hologram. What you actually see is an array of strips similar to the patterns on our fingers. You can turn the hologram and see it from different angles. If we break the hologram into four parts, we will have four copies of the key. We will see an integral image of the key on each of the four holograms. The same will happen if we break a mirror into four parts. We will have four separate mirrors with your reflection in each one of them.
Imagine a thin slip of paper that is divided into three parts: the middle is white and the edges are black. This is a very low spatial frequency.
Now imagine a slip of paper divided into five segments, three black and two white ones intermingled. Black – white – black – white – black. This is a higher spatial frequency.
Now imagine a slip of paper divided into thousands of black and white segments… a very high spatial frequency.
Spatial frequency is a number of changes between the dark and the light per one unit length.
Why do we need spatial frequencies? It is spatial frequencies that our brains, our visual analytical systems, utilize to operate.
On the pictures below, you can see a scheme of visual analytical system (picture taken from “Eye, Brain, and Vision” by D. Hubel).
Our analytical system includes: an eye (with retina consisting of six types of cells), optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, visual radiation, and primary visual cortex (zones 17 & 18).
The picture to the right shows a trajectory of an eye movement. An eye performs micro movements and receives data as a result of this process (micro movements are shown as zigzag lines in the picture). Next, the eye makes a leap (straight line); at this moment, the data transfer is stopped, and the eye temporarily becomes blind. Then, everything repeats. Micro movements only last a quarter of a second.
During the micro movement, eye oscillation information from the eye retina moves to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), marked with a black arrow on the picture. It filters spatial frequencies. Imagine a picture with a chess-board-like rectangular net on it. With every eye micro movement, the lateral geniculate nucleus sends the spatial frequencies to the primary visual cortex in an organized way – from the lower to the higher frequencies. Thus, initially, a brain receives a picture that is broken down into segments (squares). At the end of retinal micro movements, the brain receives a picture that is split into many small squares.
In a quarter of a second, the lateral geniculate nucleus breaks the incoming picture down into about 260 spatial frequencies that are consecutively sent to the eye cortex.
The information processing continues in the eye cortex. Each of the 260 pictures, every single one with a different resolution, is processed further. The brain analyzes regions with brightness drops and “cuts out” the contours.
The result of all these artful transformations looks approximately as follows:
When you see a visual image, say, “a radio,” the image is split into sub images, which range from very rough contours to very precise contours of small details. Every part of an image is consecutively sent to the brain: contours of the radio itself, then contours of the strap, the loudspeaker, antenna, tuning scale, brand, letters, numbers, scratches, and so on.
The image is then put back together into one integral image in other parts of the cerebral cortex. Still, we see this image as we are used to, composed from tiny parts and details.
If our brain was unable to perform such crafty transformations with perceived images, we would see the surrounding world as an array of bright blurs of different colors and intensity. The visual images to which we are accustomed – are illusions created by the visual analytical system. For us to see objects divided into precise details, our brain splits the uncertain color blurs by their spatial frequencies, distinguishes contours, and separately sends each one of them to the higher departments; it is there that the overall image is recreated from the parts.
The brain is a homogenous system. At any given moment of time, there can only be one contour in the primary visual cortex, only one part of an object perceived. Visual analytical systems work at very high frequencies (about 800 Hz), so a person does not notice the consecutive processing of information.
The amount of analyzed spatial frequencies is often related to different factors, lighting in particular. In dim light, our analytical system sharply decreases the number of stages of spatial frequencies analysis. As a result, our brain receives only low spatial frequencies and can only distinguish approximate contours. That is why a person cannot see exact details in the dark.
In the case of lateral geniculate nucleus disorder, a very rough spatial frequencies analysis occurs, and the brain receives only low frequencies. A person thus afflicted is unable to distinguish similar objects that differ only in minor detail (faces of people, for example - all people look “the same” to such patients).
By “feedback” we mean the visual analytical system’s ability to perceive signals not only from the eye retina, but also from the higher sections of the brain. Logic tells us that brain nerves must be connected to the lateral geniculate nucleus. That is, brain nerves must enter the lateral geniculate nucleus. D. Hubel in his book “Eye, Brain, and Vision” writes: “They (lateral geniculate) receive fibers not only from the optic nerves, but also back from the cerebral cortex to which they project, and from the brainstem reticular formation, which plays some role in attention or arousal.”
This is your “third eye” – an inner vision organ that many do not believe exists, failing to notice an unquestionable proof – dreams. How does a person ‘see’ dreams, if not with visual analyzers? Nature does not create superficial constructions. Information from the brain goes to visual analyzer at the level of a lateral geniculate nucleus. When a person sleeps, his or her eyes are closed and physiologically switched off. The visual analyzer is free from external information. At night, signals are meticulously analyzed, and broken down into an array of spatial frequencies. This is why we are able to see images in color and often in great detail in our dreams.
When a person is awake, information from the brain continues to go to visual analytical system. However, powerful stimuli and signals from the brain sent by the eyes are blocked. The lateral geniculate nucleus distinguishes only low spatial frequencies from the brain. That is the reason why, when awake, a person can imagine (reproduce, remember) images only vaguely, as if in shadow or through a fog.
When we do not sleep, signals from the brain are superposed on signals from our eyes (from the external world). We can draw an important conclusion based on this fact. If you want to learn to imagine bright and precise images, you do not need to stare at one spot for hours. You need to remove low spatial frequencies from your brain. This means that when you are imagining a visual image, you need to imagine it as detailed as possible and try to notice its tiniest details. As a result of such an exercise, you will soon learn to imagine vividly.
Understanding the feedback mechanism is essential for understanding the connection creation mechanism involved in electric memory. A disorder (a breakdown) in the feedback system must, theoretically, lead to a person’s inability to fix the information he or she perceives. Such illnesses really exist – for instance, Alzheimers and Korsakovsky syndromes.
Everyone is familiar with the resonance phenomenon.
Imagine that you have two identical tuning forks in two corners of a room. Since they are identical, they will produce the same sound, the same frequency, if hit with a metallic stick.
If you hit one of the tuning forks with a small hammer and then cover it with your arm, you will hear the second tuning fork begin to sound. The first sound reached the second tuning fork through the air, across the room, and made it hum due to resonance agitation. Different objects that have the same frequency are able to resonate and agitate one another. If nothing troubles the resonance, then one more specific feature is exposed – resonance leads to spontaneous amplification of oscillatory movement amplitude.
Resonance is not only useful, but also a dangerous thing. A case described in the media recalled an event when the rotation speed of one of the machines in a factory coincided with the building frequency; this lead to resonance and self-amplification of oscillation amplitude - and the building disintegrated!
When you tune a guitar, you tune the strings to sound in consonance, that is, to resonate with each other. Resonance caresses our ears, and we hear a slow beating of frequencies.
If you move a microphone close to a loudspeaker, you will hear a screeching sound, which is another case of frequency resonance.
Both living and non-living objects can resonate. If there is any oscillatory (cyclic and possessing stable frequency) process – resonance is possible. Moreover, resonance is able to “pull” in other oscillation processes with close and unstable frequency, pulling whole systems into single oscillation rhythm.
Arthur T. Winfree’s “The Timing of Biological Clocks” is dedicated to this subject. This is a brilliant popular synopsis of a very complicated and interesting phenomenon – phase singularity.
The Spatial Frequency Filter
We use the spatial frequency filters to extract images from our brain. No, you will not have to buy them at a store! You will learn to make them yourself. You will not be able to memorize anything without them.
First, let’s draw a simple parallel with a piano. Imagine that all piano keys have been pulled away and the strings have been misplaced. How do you find a string that sounds at a 440 Hz frequency? You might have already guessed – you will need a tuning fork that sounds at the 440 Hz frequency. If we are near the piano with this tuning fork and hit it with a hammer, a string having the same frequency will begin to sound. You will even see the vibration with your eyes. Useful, isn’t it? You need not check every string. Further, this method allows finding the right string instantly, without checking each and every one.
Remember the key hologram. Imagine a hundred keys lying in front of you, with edge configuration being their only difference. From a distance of few meters, our eye is incapable of distinguishing them. How do you quickly find the key from the hologram? It is simple: you need to expose the table with the keys to a laser ray and look at them through the key hologram. What will happen? A bright point will appear, as if saying: here is the right one. Again, we do not have to check every key and can instantly perform our search. A filter of spatial frequencies, the key hologram, helped us.
How are spatial frequency filters related to GMS®?
Every perceived or imagined visual image is a spatial frequency filter for your brain.
To extract something from the brain, one needs to use an appropriate filter. Let us see if this is true. Imagine a “swimming mask and a snorkel.” What did your brain reproduce? I am 99% sure it is either the ocean, a lake, or a swimming pool. A few minutes ago, you were not even thinking about any of those and would probably not think to do so at this moment until random stimulus made you think about it.
This difficult and seemingly incomprehensible word combination, in fact, represents a very simple phenomenon. As scientists have proved, visual analytical system nerve cells do not react to everything they see. Each cell is genetically attuned to react to certain visual stimulus. One nerve cell begins to work only when an eye sees a vertical line. If you turn the line by 6 degrees, another cell comes into play and the previous one stops reacting. If an eye sees a horizontal line, a cell responsible for horizontal line reacts. There are cells responsible for lines of particular length, cells responsible for particular angle, and cells responsible for arc images. Visual analyzers have many nerve cells; the majority of them only react at the simplest visual stimuli. If an eye sees a triangle, three cells react since a triangle consists of three lines with different angles. Two cells react at an image of a circle since it is made up from two semi-circumferences, and so on.
It is also interesting, that for a visual picture to appear in a person’s imagination, you do not need to show it to an eye. If you artificially agitate the cells adjusted to react at a triangle image (say, by electricity), they will start working, and an image they generate will appear in your imagination.
In other words, the brain is able to react to every perceived visual image by switching on a combination of nerve cells attuned to react to the primitive details of the image. It is important to understand that a person does not see the world through his eyes as he would through a peephole in a door. Even the comparison with a camera and a screen is incorrect. Think about the fact that the images you see while asleep and dreaming OR when you are awake are generated by nerve cells. It may seem that reality is hard to separate from a dream. There are dreams as bright as reality to the extent that a person asleep does not even realize he is asleep. Everything is natural: images, sounds, smells, taste. It is only when you awaken that you realize you were sleeping. And what if you did not wake up? Would we believe we live in reality?
The fact that the “picture” you see is not a reflection of reality, but is one generated by nerve cells, has been proven via experiments with people under deep hypnosis.
A person under hypnosis, sitting in a small room with a few people, can be convinced that he is not asleep. Further, he will act as if he is not sleeping. He will talk to the other people; he will see them and answer their questions. Yet, if one new person enters the room, he is invisible to the person under hypnosis; he will not be seen nor heard by him, not noticed even if he touch the person’s shoulder. The person in hypnotic state will look at the hypnotist and tell him he felt as if someone had touched him.
If your brain reflected reality, such tricks would be impossible. The brain generates, creates images. It CREATES them on the basis of signals coming from a person’s eyes while he is not asleep. When we sleep, the brain creates images based on signals coming from… well, maybe even coming from another brain. For example, connected with electric wires, people often see “foreign” dreams with unfamiliar places and people. This subject falls a bit out of the officially recognized scientific research field, but we will look into it nevertheless. We will do this in a special section of the www.Pmemory.com website (see “Parapsychology”).
The most important thing to remember about directional selectivity is that we do not remember images. It is the brain that generates, creates images. Also, anyone can control the image generation process in his or her own imagination.
Images are not stored in the brain. The brain generates images when a signal comes into it. The brain’s analytical system is able to create visual images of any level of complexity from millions of primitive elements automatically generated by nerve cells genetically adjusted for this.
Here is one more simple proof: a limit of imagination, consciousness volume. All that you see in your imagination is created by a limited set of nerve cells. A person cannot remember two phone numbers simultaneously; he cannot imagine ten visual images at the same moment. To remember a new image, he will first have to erase the previous one and FREE up the nerve cells. Information is generated in small portions.
A comparison to the “Lego” toy is very appropriate here. Say, you have 600 pieces of Legos from which you can build a house. To create another construction – say, a plane – you will first have to deconstruct the house to free up some of the pieces (since their number is limited, even though very large). To build a car, we would need to deconstruct the plane, and so on. Principally, we can build an unlimited number of constructions from the limited number of pieces but, each time, we will have to decompose previous constructions.
Watch your imagination work – that is how it works. This is obvious. No memory would be enough to store the endless variety of existing objects. It is much simpler not to save them, but to create if such necessity appears.
One often encounters a statement in psychology books saying that the volume of short-term memory equals five to nine units. These “5-9 units” are not related to the memory; this is the volume of human consciousness: the number of images that the brain can generate at any one given moment; memory does not have anything to do with this.
When studying GMS®, you will comprehend that every person, after a period of training, will be able to memorize tens and hundreds of images at one take. There is no such thing as the “short-term memory volume.” One of the recent records is 2,750 numbers in 30 minutes!
Nerve Cell Background Activity
Even in its calm state, an outer skin of a nerve cell has potential. The potential inside and outside the cell differ by 1/10 of a volt – the outside has more potential. The precise value is about 0.07 volt, or 70 millivolts. It is not constant, and its value fluctuates.
Nerve Cell Work Activity
When a nerve cell switches on, which happens when an eye perceives a stimulus or a signal from other cells, there is work activity that appears on it. A reversed region appears in its fiber. Outside this region, the potential is about 40 millivolts with a minus sign before it. In the reversed region, the potential changes its polarity and value: from +70 millivolts to –40 millivolts.
Such reversed regions “run” along nerve fibers and agitate other nerve cells. A nerve fiber can only have one impulse in it at any given moment. Before this impulse has reached the end of the nerve fiber, the next one will not appear. The frequency of impulse generation by nerve cells does not exceed 1000 Hz (1,000 times a minute).
Many cerebrum cells are able to generate impulses even when stimulating signals no longer influence them. This kind of activity is called “slow synaptic transfer.”
Nerve cells are not connected directly, like electrical wires. There is a small gap where the cells are joined – a synaptic gap, a tiny bridge to be crossed. When an impulse reaches the end of the fiber, nerve cells emit different substances to the synapse zone. These substances have an impact on the neighboring cell and an electric impulse appears in it.
Signal transmissions happen electrochemically. Impulses run through the nerve cell fiber, and the cells “talk” with each other with chemical substances.
If you are particularly interested in the brain functioning, you can read D. Hubel’s “Eye, Brain, and Vision.”
Electrical Connection Apparition Scheme
Let us examine the connection fixation process on a rather simplified scheme that allows understanding of the general principle (scheme 1).
Let there be three nerve cells that are genetically adjusted to react via work activity on the following stimuli: a triangle, a square, and a circumference.
When an eye perceives the “square” stimulus, the appropriate nerve cell will react to it, and an image of a square will appear in the imagination. If you remove the stimulus, the cell activity stops, and it stops generating the square image in the brain.
If this cell is artificially agitated (with a needle or electricity), it will start generating impulses; the image will appear in the imagination, even though it does not really exist nor is there stimulus.
Through imagination (the big circle on the top of the picture), the nerve cells are locked on themselves. This is thought to happen because of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
There is some background frequency on every nerve cell, but its amplitude is not enough to switch the cell on and, hence, cause an image to appear in the imagination. For clearness, we will mark the cells with numbers: 3, 5, and 7.
Please note the fact that the background and working frequency of a cell can change, but the image generated by the cell remains untouched. This is the “trick.”
Now, we have all the data necessary to explain how a connection is fixed in the electric memory.
Let us again assume that an eye perceives a figure consisting of several primitive elements: a triangle, a square, and a circumference (scheme 2). The perceived visual image is decomposed into simple images, and each image is sent to the brain. Nerve cells that are adjusted to react on these images are switched on and begin generating their images.
Thanks to the feedback channel, different frequencies of simultaneously working cells mix together, and the frequency combinations in every working cell become identical.
That is basically it. A synchronization of the simultaneously working cells’ frequencies has occurred - and the cells responsible for different images, memorized connections between them, are now synchronized.
Formula: connection fixation in the electric memory is realized by synchronizing the frequencies of simultaneously working nerve cells.
Obviously, information reproduction within this memory system is only possible when there is a stimulating signal. Let’s now analyze the anamnesis process (information generation by the brain) in scheme 3.
When a triangle image is at the entry of a visual analyzer, it switches a nerve cell on and begins generating impulses to create an image of the triangle in the imagination.
But, if there are active cells working in the background with the same frequency, the pulsation amplitude increases, and the cells will start generating their images due to the frequency resonance principle – that is, a square and a circumference images.
It will seem that we remember the image combination we have memorized.
Formula: image anamnesis (generation) in the electric memory is realized due to the frequency resonance when a stimulating (activating generation process) signal is present.
Visual images are not remembered by the brain. The anamnesis process that you are accustomed to is, in fact, a process of image generation in your imagination.
Time contiguity of several stimuli is a necessary factor for memorization.
Information (connections) is stored in the memory as a harmonized electric activity of a group of nerve cells.
The information generation process is only possible if there is an incoming stimulus at the system entry.
One nerve cell can have electric resonance connections with many other nerve cells and can contain a large amount of simple frequency combinations.
The described memory model is perfect for explaining all that is “strange” in the human memory. This model is straightforward; anyone can implement and test it. When memorizing using methods based on this memory model, 100% reproduction is guaranteed.
If you “break” the feedback channel in the connection fixation scheme, the brain stops synchronizing cells that are responsible for the perceived stimuli. This means that a person will stop fixing the information perceived and may end up greeting you ten times a day, each time he sees you. He will also be unable to count money.
Illness will express itself differently and have different names according to the place of the feedback channel rupture, whether Alzheimer illness (hippocampus damage) or Korsakovsky syndrome (neural tract damage). The described memory model demonstrates mechanisms of these illnesses – feedback channel rupture and the related inability to synchronize electric activity of nerve cells, that is, the inability to create connection.